Guides

Tetra has published the following guides which are available for ordering:

For hard copies please contact Natalie Vasa This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. if you want to order any of these books.

HRSG Tube Failure Diagnostic Guide (3rd Edition)

Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) tubes provide the media for extraction of useful energy from the waste heat in gas turbine exhaust at combined cycle power plants (GT-CCs) or from heat generated by process streams at petrochemical facilities.  HRSGs have undergone substantial changes in design over the past 15 years as the technology matured from small PURPA and Cogeneration units to today’s large power plants. HRSG tube failures are an infrequent occurrence at most units.  Typically, there is less than one failure per year.  However, the costs associated with unexpected forced outages for merchant units or for units in deregulated markets encourage efforts to anticipate problems.  Like boiler tubes in radiant boilers, HRSG tubes are subject to a variety of service related damage.  Damage mechanisms vary in severity based on materials selected, local operating temperatures and stresses, and the interaction between vibration and corrosion mechanisms. Because HRSGs have operated at generally lower metal temperatures than older radiant boilers, creep and creep fatigue have not been common failure causes.  Instead, corrosion fatigue, flow accelerated corrosion, and damage at locations with weld defects have occurred at many units.  Other corrosion mechanisms such as pitting and acid gas attack to cold end tubes have also contributed to premature HRSG tube failures.  In addition to fundamental design differences, modern HRSGs are also subject to a wider range of duty in power applications.  Baseload operation was normal for smaller HRSGs, but today’s deregulating electric power market will require many new large HRSGs to operate in cycling duty.